Passive-aggressiveness is described as the indirect expression of hostility or anger, through such manifestations as procrastination, stubbornness, sullenness, or deliberate or repeated failure to accomplish requested tasks for which one is – often explicitly – responsible. According to Psychology Today (2015), Passive Aggressiveness is defined as “that sweet-yet-scolding note your roommate leaves about the one cup you left unwashed”, or the report your colleague keeps « forgetting » to finish for you. Passive-aggressiveness is frustrating to its targets, since it is not always as easily identifiable—or unacceptable—as, say, aggressive behaviours would be, such as physically or verbally attacking someone. According to the Counselling Directory in the UK (2015), passive aggressive behaviours are attributed to people who (try hard to) keep their real feelings inside, but end up revealing them in subtle, under-hand but often far more destructive ways. Sometimes this can be accidental, but more often than not, passive aggression is a perfectly intentional form of behaviour.

The Likeability Factor – From Personal Branding to Likeability

Most readers will be familiar with notion of branding, maybe less so with the notion of love marks. The term was used some years ago by Saatchi & Saatchi, one of the best known advertising companies on the planet.

From branding to love marks

In a farm, how on earth could you recognize cows from each other? To bridge that challenge, cows got a mark on their hips. It is the origin of the word branding. Branding is thus first of all recognition. Linked to a brand are the numerous associations that people have with the brand. Think about Citibank, for instance: “The Citi never sleeps”. The association created with the brand is that it is possible to do banking business 24 hours out of 24 and 7 days out of 7. In another field, Audi’s” Vorspung durch Technik” (being better than the others due to technical superiority) is associated with the perception that Audi cars are indeed technically advanced, hence the amazing success of the brand. A brand is usually associated with a logo and typical brand colors and slogans. To keep the same example: Citi is associated with the well-known Citi Bleu, Raiffeisen with yellow and black, HSBC with red and white, BGL BNPPARIBAS with green.